1 Worldviews, philosophy and science

1.1 What is eternal?

            Worldviews and personal philosophy

            How worldviews and personal philosophy affect science

1.2 What is science?

            Empirical evidence

            Logical inferences

            Necessary presuppositions

            Is science the only way of knowing?

1.3 What questions need to be addressed?

            Four origins

            Evaluating the models

2 A spectrum of models

2.1 What is a model?

            Hypothesis, theory, law, model

            Why terminology is important

2.2 What is the spectrum of opinion?

            Ends dominate public opinion

            Intermediate positions

            Relation to presuppositions

2.3 What are the models?

            Overview of the models

            Naturalistic evolution (NE)

            Non-teleological evolution (NTE)

            Planned evolution (PE)

            Directed evolution (DE)

            Old earth creation (OEC)

            Young earth creation (YEC)

2.4 What about Intelligent Design?

            An idea and a movement

            Relation to the models

3 Origin of the universe

3.1 What is the evidence?

            A changing universe

                        Red shift

                        Cosmic microwave background radiation

                        Relative abundance of light elements

                        Consistency with theory

            A fine-tuned universe

                        Physical constants

                        Universe conditions

                        Solar system conditions

3.2 How does each model interpret the evidence?

            In the beginning (NTE, PE, DE, OEC)

            Apparent beginning (NE)

            Apparent age (YEC)

3.3 What difference does it make?

4 Origin of life

4.1 What is the evidence?

            Life from non-life

                        Organic precursors

                        Random reactions




                        Nearly universal and ideal code

                        Independent of carrier

                        Specified complexity

                        Irreducible complexity

4.2 How does each model interpret the evidence?

            Chance or necessity (NE, NTE, PE)

            Immediate appearance (OEC, YEC)

            Purposeful direction (DE)

4.3 What difference does it make?

5 Origin of species

5.1 What is the evidence?




                        Stasis and saltation

                        Extinctions and explosions

                        Geographical distribution



                        Population genetics


                        Homeotic genes

                        Genome complexity



                        Vestigial structures

                        Non-coding DNA

                        Gene order

                        Molecular sequences


5.2 How does each model interpret the evidence?

            Neo-Darwinian synthesis (NE, NTE, PE)

            Non-Darwinian evolution (DE)

            Creation (OEC, YEC)

5.3 What difference does it make?

6 Origin of humans

6.1 What is the evidence?

            6.1.1 Hominoids, hominids, or hominins?



            6.1.2 Chimps vs. humans

                        Chromosome 2

                        DNA sequence

                        Molecular clock studies

6.2 How does each model interpret the evidence?

            Sentient animal (NE)

            Special animal (NTE, PE)

            Special purpose (DE)

            Special creation (OEC, YEC)

6.3 What difference does it make?

            Theological issues

            Personal identity

            Social issues

7 What we can learn from each

7.1 What evidence needs an explanation?

            Six blind men

            Agreeing to disagree

7.2 What contribution has each made?

            Contributions of neo-Darwinism

            Contributions of non-Darwinian evolution

            Contributions of old earth creation and intelligent design

            Contributions of young earth creation

7.3 What does each need to address?

            Overcoming the odds

            Providing a mechanism

7.4 Seeing the big picture

            Poles apart

            Removing the blinders

8 Science and faith

8.1 Whose definition of science?

            The inadequacy of empiricism

            Different definitions of science

            Presuppositions and the definition of science

            The objectivity of science

8.2 The heart of the debate

            The battle for America‚Äôs youth

            Leveling the playing field

            What can we conclude?


Appendix 1: Tables Comparing Six Models of Origins

Appendix 2: Comparison of Various Interpretations of Genesis 1



Subject Index

Person and Organization Index